Scratchbox  contains two tools that help in running programs built for non-native
architectures: sbrsh and fakeroot. They consist of parts that are
compiled for the host system and the target system.
The scratchbox-core package provides the host-side tools and the scratchbox-toolchain-name package provides target-side binaries compiled with the toolchain name. See Installing Scratchbox  for instructions for obtaining these packages.
sbrsh and fakeroot are licensed under the GNU General Public License . sbrsh's source code
repository can be found at the ViewCVS section on the Scratchbox website . fakeroot is
maintained by the Debian project .
sbrsh is a remote command execution system similar to rsh and ssh. It is designed with slow devices and
Scratchbox's special requirements in mind. It supports common types of program execution (including terminal
emulation), but it is optimized for non-interactive usage. The communication happens on a TCP/IP connection and is not
encrypted-sbrsh is meant to be used only on trusted networks (such as a company's LAN or an USB network between a PC
and a handheld device).
The server daemon (sbrshd) is run on a device having the same CPU architecture as the compilation target that is
being used in Scratchbox. It executes the commands issued by the client (sbrsh) inside a "sandbox" that is created by
mounting network filesystems (typically exported by the host that runs the client) and binding local directories (such
sbrshd contains support functionality that makes remote fakeroot sessions possible (this is described in Appendix A).
The target device should be running some kind of more-or-less standard Linux installation with kernel version 2.4
or newer. sbrshd has been tested with Familiar  and EE 
Only the sbrshd binary needs to be installed, but its init script is recommended. If you
have installed the scratchbox-toolchain-target package, you can
copy a binary suitable for the target system and the init script
from the /scratchbox/device_tools/sbrsh-version/target/ directory. If there isn't a binary available that matches your system (for example C library
version is different), you can try a statically linked one. There is a statically linked version in the /scratchbox/device_tools/sbrsh-version/arch-linux-static/
directory for each CPU architecture that has a uClibc  toolchain available.
There are a few things to know before starting the daemon. sbrshd uses the mount command to
bind parts of the directory tree to other locations. The mount command provided by the standard util-linux software
package uses the "--bind" option for this, but this may not be the case with all versions of
mount. For example, Busybox  uses the "-obind" option instead. sbrshd
tries to auto-detect if the mount binary is a symlink to Busybox, but sometimes it may be necessary to pass the correct
bind option to sbrshd as the parameter of the "-b" option.
sbrshd also needs a list of valid login shells in order to verify that users are authorized to login to the target
device. The preferred way is to provide the /etc/shells file that lists the paths to the
shells. The alternative is to pass a list of paths to the "-S" option. The init script provides
a list of a few common shells if /etc/shells is not available.
Finally: sbrshd needs to be started as root. It needs super-user privileges for mounting and for chrooting to the
"sandbox" directory. The command execution is done under the user and group IDs of the user account that is used to
execute the command.
If you installed the init script to /etc/init.d/, you can probably make the system run
it automatically during boot (refer to your system's documentation). You can use the script manually to start and stop
Note that by default the init script looks for sbrshd from /sbin/. You
should edit the init script if you want to pass sbrshd some additional options. If you want to run sbrshd manually, you
can simply do:
It goes automatically to daemon mode (starts a background process and returns to shell immediately). It prints out the
process ID of the daemon, which can be used to kill it later on.
See Section B.2 for a full list of command-line options.
The target device must have normal user accounts (i.e. not root) for executing commands via sbrsh. Each user must
have a .sbrshd (server-side) configuration file in her home directory that is used by the
sbrsh daemon for authentication. It lists all IP addresses (not hostnames) of the hosts that the user uses to connect
to the device and corresponding passwords. The passwords are not encrypted at any point, so do not use any important
ones. The .sbrshd file format is described in Section B.4.
Each user account of the Scratchbox installation has separate .sbrsh (client-side)
configuration file that corresponds to the server-side one. It is located in the user's home directory inside the Scratchbox sandbox. It lists some or all of the user's compilation
targets. The target settings include the IP address and port of the server, the password that matches the one in .sbrshd and a list of network and local filesystems that make up the sandbox. The .sbrsh file format is described in Section B.3.
The filesystem configuration needs to recreate the environment that exists inside the Scratchbox sandbox, with a
few exceptions. The sandbox on the target device should use its "native" /proc, /dev and /dev/pts directories for things to work. It is also customary to use
the device's /tmp directory. The order of mounting matters; the filesystem that becomes the
sandbox's root must be listed first in the configuration, and so on. The configuration that should be used with a
typical Scratchbox installation is described in Installing Scratchbox .
sbrsh is normally invoked implicitly by Scratchbox's CPU-transparency feature, but it can also be used manually. It needs to know which target should
be used and which program should be executed, but not much more. However, it may be a good idea to pass the current
working directory for it with the "-d" option:
> sbrsh MY-TARGET -d $PWD ./hello
One notable difference to ssh is that sbrsh doesn't use the shell to execute commands, and thus does not read any
profile or resource files. It creates the target environment by copying variables from the source environment. It also
transfers the umask setting.
Sometimes you may not want to pass some architecture-specific variables for the target binaries or want to change
them. sbrsh can override or unset variables in the remote end by using variables prefixed with "SBOX_ENV_". The following example should illustrate the behaviour:
> export SBOX_ENV_FOO=bar
> sbrsh MY-TARGET env | grep ^FOO
> export SBOX_ENV_PATH=(UNSET)
> sbrsh MY-TARGET env
sbrsh server: Can't execute command: env (No such file or directory)
sbrsh doesn't copy the resource limit settings to the remote environment, but they can be tuned with environment
variables of the form "SBRSH_RLIMIT_resource":
Limit total CPU time of the process to 10 seconds:
> export SBRSH_RLIMIT_CPU=10
Always create core dumps:
> export SBRSH_RLIMIT_CORE=unlimited
Run a program under these conditions:
> sbrsh MY-TARGET gnomovision
See Appendix B for a full list of command-line options and environment variables.
The daemon reports all error conditions to syslog. It also supports a debug log where it writes lot of information
about its state and what happens during command execution. It can be enabled with the "-d"
command-line option, which takes the log filename as its parameter.
sbrshd does not have to be restarted in order to enable logging: it will open the log when it receives the USR1 signal. Logging can also be turned off with the USR2 signal. If a log
filename was not specified with the "-d" option (i.e. logging was not initially enabled), the
log will be written to /tmp/sbrshd-port.log ("port"
being the listening port of the daemon-1202 by default).
Here is an example session where the debug log is written to the terminal device:
# sbrshd -d `tty`
01-06-1970 03:41:45.504 3992 DAEMON Debugging enabled
01-06-1970 03:41:45.506 3992 DAEMON sbrshd version 1.4.4 (protocol version 4)
01-06-1970 03:41:45.506 3992 DAEMON Listening at port 1202
01-06-1970 03:41:45.506 3992 DAEMON Valid login shells: /bin/sh /bin/bash
/bin/zsh /bin/ash /bin/tcsh
01-06-1970 03:41:45.507 3992 DAEMON Mounts expire after 900 seconds
01-06-1970 03:41:45.507 3992 DAEMON Waiting for connection
# kill -USR2 3992
01-06-1970 03:42:11.513 3992 DAEMON User defined signal 2
01-06-1970 03:42:11.513 3992 DAEMON Debugging disabled
# kill -USR1 3992
01-06-1970 03:42:14.370 3992 DAEMON Debugging enabled
01-06-1970 03:42:14.371 3992 DAEMON Checking for expired mounts
01-06-1970 03:42:14.371 3992 DAEMON Waiting for connection
The type of the process is displayed next to the process ID in the log. sbrshd has four types of processes that write
log entries: DAEMON accepts connections and handles mounts, HANDLER
handles I/O between the client and the command process, RELAY relays fakeroot messages and COMMAND "bootstraps" and executes the command.
Fakeroot  is a utility that runs programs in an environment that looks as if they were
run with super-user privileges. It is used primarily for setting file ownerships and modes before packaging them. You
can for example create device nodes and store them in a tarball while logged in as a normal user. Of course, the
programs run from a fakeroot session cannot really do privileged system calls; fakeroot keeps an in-memory database of
file ownerships and such things.
Fakeroot was developed by the Debian Project  to help in building Debian packages. The
Debian packaging system needs a root environment so that it would be as easy as possible to set up ownerships and
Scratchbox introduces new requirements for fakeroot. During the development of Scratchbox an enhanced version of
fakeroot was developed with the name fakeroot-net. It was later
merged with the upstream project and nowadays Scratchbox uses the upstream codebase.
When using sbrsh to implement CPU-transparency in Scratchbox, the command execution can jump from host to target
within a fakeroot session. Since both ends use the same filesystems (via NFS), they must also use the same fakeroot
session. This is not possible with the original design that uses SYSV IPC. The Scratchbox version uses TCP/IP sockets
for its internal communication. (The TCP version of the fakeroot command is also available in the Debian package with
the name fakeroot-tcp.)
Using TCP sockets in fakeroot is not enough to implement network-transparent fakeroot sessions. The sbrsh server
(sbrshd) is used to filter the information passed between the remote fakeroot environment and the fakeroot daemon
(faked) that keeps the database. The reason for this is explained in Appendix A.
Scratchbox provides the fakeroot command, the fakeroot daemon (faked) and a host version of the fakeroot library
(libfakeroot). They are sufficient for running host tools in fakeroot, but a target version of libfakeroot needs to be
installed for each Scratchbox target in order to run target binaries in fakeroot. Installing
Scratchbox  describes how to do that. Scratchbox's fakeroot is compatible with the
libfakeroot provided by the Debian package, so you can use that aswell.
Refer to fakeroot's manual page (Appendix C) for usage instructions.
The fakeroot environment is imposed upon a process by using the C-library's LD_PRELOAD environment variable.
libfakeroot is preloaded by the dynamic linker whenever it loads a binary. This means that fakeroot does not work with
statically linked binaries.
There is also another side-effect. Since libfakeroot is loaded into the same process image with the "victim"
program, they share the same file descriptor table. Some programs (such as the configure scripts) use hard-coded
descriptor numbers. libfakeroot needs one file descriptor for its communication socket, and if the program starts to
use the same file descriptor, there will be trouble. fakeroot tries to monitor the status of its descriptor so that it
can open a new socket if the descriptor has been changed. If you start seeing messages about hijacked file descriptors,
you can try to make fakeroot use some other file descriptor with the --fd-base option. Its
default value is (descriptor_table_size - 100).
Now you can run programs in the hand-made fakeroot session and see the daemon's cryptic debug output in the other
terminal. This way you can also use a debugger to debug a program within a fakeroot environment.
/scratchbox/tools/lib/libfakeroot-tcp.so.0 is the host version. If you are running
target binaries, you should set LD_PRELOAD to /usr/lib/libfakeroot/libfakeroot-tcp.so.0.
When using a remote fakeroot session, the communication can be traced using the sbrsh daemon's debug log. See Section 2.4 for instructions.
faked maintains a list of entries based on their device and inode numbers of the files that have been modified
during a fakeroot session. The entries contain a data structure that is essentially the same as the one used by the stat system call. The TCP version introduces an additional remote field
in the entry, which works like a "namespace" for the devices and inodes. All files on the local filesystems belog to
the default namespace (remote is not set).
When a remote command is run within a fakeroot session, sbrsh resolves the device numbers of the NFS filesystems
that are listed in its config file for the used target. If they are not exported by the local host but some third host,
it tries to find out if the NFS filesystems are mounted on the local host and use the device numbers of the mount
sbrshd receives the list of mount entries and finds out what their device numbers are on the target device. Then
it creates a relay process that listens for connections from
local fakeroot sessions. When it receives one, it makes a corresponding connection to the faked running on the
Scratchbox host. It maintains as many connection pairs as there are processes running within the local fakeroot
session. The relay copies messages from the local session to the remote daemon and responses from the daemon to the
session, and translates the device numbers in the messages between the local and remote device number "spaces".
If the relay finds an unlisted device number in one of the incoming messages, it does not translate it but sets
the value of the remote field to the IP address of the host it is running at. This way faked
can serve unknown filesystems without the danger of device number/inode collisions.
specifies the mount binary path (default is /bin/mount)
specifies the umount binary path (default is /bin/umount)
specifies the mount table path (default is /proc/mounts)
specifies the option used when binding a path to a mount point (default is
"--bind", or "-obind" if mount binary is Busybox)
specifies the number of minutes to wait before expiring unused mount
points (default is 15); 0 means that filesystems are unmounted immediately after commands exit; "none" means that filesystems are unmounted only when sbrshd exits
specifies the path to a file that lists all valid login shells (default is
specifies a colon-separated list of valid login shells; /etc/shells is not read if this is specified
sbrsh configuration file lists all known targets (see Section B.1). The first line of a target block must not contain whitespaces before the name of the target. The subsequent lines must be indented. "#" is
a line end comment character. The root of the command's sandbox will be the 'ipaddress-target'
directory under the user's home directory.
The layout of the first line:
target [username@]ipaddress[:port] password
The subsequent lines define the mounts needed by the target
(type is either "nfs" or "bind"):
The command execution environment at the target device can be controlled via a few environment variables.
"SBOX_ENV_" prefix will be stripped from all variables having one. If a corresponding
variable without the prefix exists, it will be overridden. If the variable's value is "(UNSET)", the corresponding variable will be removed from environment. For example the dynamic linker can
be controlled this way (via the LD_* variables) without affecting the sbrsh client itself.
The resource limits can be set using variables with the "SBRSH_RLIMIT_" prefix. The value
can be either an integer or "unlimited". The supported setting are:
fakeroot(1) Debian manual fakeroot(1)
fakeroot - run a command in an environment faking root privileges for
fakeroot [-l|--lib library] [--faked faked-binary] [-i load-file] [-s
save-file] [-u|--unknown-is-real ] [-b|--fd-base ] [-h|--help ]
[-v|--version ] [--] [command]
fakeroot runs a command in an environment wherein it appears to have
root privileges for file manipulation. This is useful for allowing
users to create archives (tar, ar, .deb etc.) with files in them with
root permissions/ownership. Without fakeroot one would need to have
root privileges to create the constituent files of the archives with
the correct permissions and ownership, and then pack them up, or one
would have to construct the archives directly, without using the
fakeroot works by replacing the file manipulation library functions
(chmod(2), stat(2) etc.) by ones that simulate the effect the real
library functions would have had, had the user really been root. These
wrapper functions are in a shared library /usr/lib/libfakeroot.so*
which is loaded through the LD_PRELOAD mechanism of the dynamic loader.
If you intend to build packages with fakeroot, please try building the
fakeroot package first: the "debian/rules build" stage has a few tests
(testing mostly for bugs in old fakeroot versions). If those tests fail
(for example because you have certain libc5 programs on your system),
other packages you build with fakeroot will quite likely fail too, but
possibly in much more subtle ways.
Also, note that it's best not to do the building of the binaries them-
selves under fakeroot. Especially configure and friends don't like it
when the system suddenly behaves differently from what they expect.
(or, they randomly unset some environment variables, some of which
-l library, --lib library
Specify an alternative wrapper library.
Specify an alternative binary to use as faked.
Any command you want to be ran as fakeroot. Use '--' if in the
command you have other options that may confuse fakeroot's
Save the fakeroot environment to save-file on exit. This file
can be used to restore the environment later using -i. However,
this file will leak and fakeroot will behave in odd ways unless
you leave the files touched inside the fakeroot alone when out-
side the environment. Still, this can be useful. For example, it
can be used with rsync(1) to back up and restore whole directory
trees complete with user, group and device information without
needing to be root. See /usr/share/doc/fakeroot/README.saving
for more details.
Load a fakeroot environment previously saved using -s from load-
file. Note that this does not implicitly save the file, use -s
as well for that behaviour. Using the same file for both -i and
-s in a single fakeroot invocation is safe.
Use the real ownership of files previously unknown to fakeroot
instead of pretending they are owned by root:root.
-b fd Specify fd base (TCP mode only). fd is the minimum file descrip-
tor number to use for TCP connections; this may be important to
avoid conflicts with the file descriptors used by the programs
being run under fakeroot.
-h Display help.
-v Display version.
Here is an example session with fakeroot. Notice that inside the fake
root environment file manipulation that requires root privileges suc-
ceeds, but is not really happening.
$ fakeroot /bin/bash
# mknod hda3 b 3 1
# ls -ld hda3
brw-r--r-- 1 root root 3, 1 Jul 2 22:58 hda3
# chown joost:root hda3
# ls -ld hda3
brw-r--r-- 1 joost root 3, 1 Jul 2 22:58 hda3
# ls -ld /
drwxr-xr-x 20 root root 1024 Jun 17 21:50 /
# chown joost:users /
# chmod a+w /
# ls -ld /
drwxrwxrwx 20 joost users 1024 Jun 17 21:50 /
$ ls -ld /
drwxr-xr-x 20 root root 1024 Jun 17 21:50 //
$ ls -ld hda3
-rw-r--r-- 1 joost users 0 Jul 2 22:58 hda3
Only the effects that user joost could do anyway happen for real.
fakeroot was specifically written to enable users to create Debian
GNU/Linux packages (in the deb(5) format) without giving them root
privileges. This can be done by commands like dpkg-buildpackage
-rfakeroot or debuild -rfakeroot (actually, -rfakeroot is default in
debuild nowadays, so you don't need that argument).
fakeroot is a regular, non-setuid program. It does not enhance a user's
privileges, or decrease the system's security.
/usr/lib/libfakeroot/libfakeroot.so* The shared library containing the
The key used to communicate with the fakeroot daemon. Any pro-
gram started with the right LD_PRELOAD and a FAKEROOTKEY of a
running daemon will automatically connect to that daemon, and
have the same "fake" view of the file system's permissions/own-
erships. (assuming the daemon and connecting program were
started by the same user).
Every command executed within fakeroot needs to be linked to the
same version of the C library as fakeroot itself.
fakeroot doesn't wrap open(), create(), etc. So, if user joost
ls -al foo
or the other way around,
ls -al foo
fakeroot has no way of knowing that in the first case, the owner
of foo really should be joost while the second case it should
have been root. For the Debian packaging, defaulting to giving
all "unknown" files uid=gid=0, is always OK. The real way around
this is to wrap open() and create(), but that creates other
problems, as demonstrated by the libtricks package. This package
wrapped many more functions, and tried to do a lot more than
fakeroot . It turned out that a minor upgrade of libc (from one
where the stat() function didn't use open() to one with a stat()
function that did (in some cases) use open()), would cause unex-
plainable segfaults (that is, the libc6 stat() called the
wrapped open(), which would then call the libc6 stat(), etc).
Fixing them wasn't all that easy, but once fixed, it was just a
matter of time before another function started to use open(),
never mind trying to port it to a different operating system.
Thus I decided to keep the number of functions wrapped by fake-
root as small as possible, to limit the likelihood of 'colli-
GNU configure (and other such programs)
fakeroot, in effect, is changing the way the system behaves.
Programs that probe the system like GNU configure may get con-
fused by this (or if they don't, they may stress fakeroot so
much that fakeroot itself becomes confused). So, it's advisable
not to run "configure" from within fakeroot. As configure should
be called in the "debian/rules build" target, running
"dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot" correctly takes care of this.
It doesn't wrap open(). This isn't bad by itself, but if a program does
open("file", O_WRONLY, 000), writes to file "file", closes it, and then
again tries to open to read the file, then that open fails, as the mode
of the file will be 000. The bug is that if root does the same, open()
will succeed, as the file permissions aren't checked at all for root. I
choose not to wrap open(), as open() is used by many other functions in
libc (also those that are already wrapped), thus creating loops (or
possible future loops, when the implementation of various libc func-
tions slightly change).
fakeroot is distributed under the GNU General Public License. (GPL 2.0
mostly by J.H.M. Dassen <email@example.com> Rather a lot mods/addi-
tions by joost and Clint.
faked(1) dpkg-buildpackage(1), debuild(1) /usr/share/doc/fakeroot/DEBUG
Debian Project 6 August 2004 fakeroot(1)